Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field Simulation

ANSYS Maxwell is a premier low-frequency electromagnetic field simulation solution which uses the highly accurate finite element method to solve static, frequency-domain, and time-varying electromagnetic and electric fields. Maxwell includes a wide range of solution types for a complete design flow for your electromagnetic and electromechanical devices.

Solvers included with ANSYS Maxwell:

  • Magnetic transient — Nonlinear analysis with:
    • Rigid motion — rotation, translational, non-cylindrical rotation
    • External circuit coupling
    • Permanent magnet demagnetization analysis
    • Core loss computation
    • Lamination modeling including manufacturing process dependency for 2D/3D
    • Irreversible temperature dependency on demagnetization of permanent magnets
    • Magnetic vector hysteresis
    • Magnetoresistive modeling in 2D/3D
  • AC electromagnetic — Analysis of devices influenced by skin/ proximity effects, eddy/displacement currents
  • Magnetostatic — Nonlinear analysis with automated equivalent circuit model generation
  • Electric field — Transient, electrostatic/current flow analysis with automated equivalent circuit model generation
Electromagnetic field simulation

Automatic, Adaptive Meshing

A key benefit of Maxwell is its automatic adaptive meshing techniques, which require you to specify only the geometry, material properties and the desired output to obtain an accurate solution. The meshing process uses a highly robust volumetric meshing technique and includes a multithreading capability that reduces the amount of memory used and accelerates time to solution. This proven technology eliminates the complexity of building and refining a finite element mesh and makes advanced numerical analysis practical for all levels of your organization.

Automatic adaptive meshing

High-Performance Computing

Adding an ANSYS Electronics HPC license to Maxwell opens a world of bigger, faster and higher-fidelity simulations. ANSYS goes well beyond simple hardware acceleration to deliver groundbreaking numerical solvers and HPC methodologies that are optimized for single multicore machines and scalable to take advantage of full cluster power.

HPC in the Cloud
The ANSYS Cloud service makes high-performance computing (HPC) extremely easy to access and use. It was developed in collaboration with Microsoft® Azure™, a leading cloud platform for HPC. It has been integrated into ANSYS Electronics Desktop, so you can access unlimited, on-demand compute power from the design environment. For more information visit the ANSYS Cloud page.

Time Decomposition Method
The Time Decomposition Method delivers computational capacity and speed for the full transient electromagnetic field simulations required for electric motors, planar magnetics and power transformers. This patent-pending technology enables you to solve all time steps simultaneously instead of sequentially, while distributing the time steps across multiple cores, networked computers and compute clusters. The result is a phenomenal increase in simulation capacity and speed.

Take advantage of multiple cores on a single computer to reduce solution time. Multithreading technology speeds up the initial mesh generation, direct and iterative matrix solves, and field recovery.

Spectral Decomposition Method
The majority of electromagnetic simulations require results such as RLC parameters, torque and loss. Spectral decomposition distributes the multiple frequency solution in parallel over compute cores to accelerate frequency sweeps. You can use this method in tandem with multithreading. Multithreading speeds up extraction of each individual frequency point, while spectral decomposition performs many frequency points in parallel.

High Speed Simulation Performance for Induction Machine analysis using Time Decomposition Method
High Speed Simulation Performance for Induction Machine analysis using Time Decomposition Method

Multidomain System Modeling

Simplorer is a powerful platform for modeling, simulating and analyzing system-level digital prototypes integrated with ANSYS Maxwell, ANSYS HFSS, ANSYS SIwave, and ANSYS Q3D Extractor. Simplorer enables you to verify and optimize the performance of your software-controlled, multidomain systems. With flexible modeling capabilities and tight integration with ANSYS 3D physics simulation, Simplorer provides broad support for assembling and simulating system-level physical models to help you connect conceptual design, detailed analysis and system verification. Simplorer is ideal for electrified system design, power generation, conversion, storage and distribution applications, EMI/EMC studies and general multidomain system optimization and verification.

Multi Domain System


  • Circuit simulation
  • Block diagram simulation
  • State machine simulation
  • VHDL-AMS simulation
  • Integrated graphical modeling environment
  • Power electronic device and module characterization
  • Co-simulation with MathWorks Simulink

Model libraries:

  • Analog and power electronics components
  • Control blocks and sensors
  • Mechanical components
  • Hydraulic components
  • Digital and logic blocks

Application-specific libraries:

  • Aerospace electrical networks
  • Electric vehicles
  • Power systems
  • Characterized manufacturers components
  • Reduced Order Modeling



Maxwell's electromagnetic field solvers are linked through ANSYS Workbench to the complete ANSYS engineering portfolio. By coupling the electromagnetic field solution with other solvers, you can examine coupled physics phenomena and achieve the highest fidelity solution to eliminate reliability problems and design safe and effective products. The ANSYS platform manages the data transfer between physics solutions and handles solver interactions, so you can easily set up and analyze complex coupled-physics behaviors such as:

  • Electromagnetic–Structural with deformed mesh feedback
  • Electromagnetic–Structural with stress and strain feedback on magnetic properties
  • Electromagnetic–Fluids
  • Electromagnetic–Structural–Fluids
  • Electromagnetic–Structural Dynamics–Acoustics

Harmonic force coupling

The transient 3D solver in ANSYS Maxwell is valuable for achieving the noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) goals of low frequency applications such as electric vehicles (EVs), transformers, traction drive trains, pumps, fans, turbomachinery, etc. This transient 3D solver supports element-based volumetric harmonic force coupling for many low frequency applications and improves their design to meet noise regulation guidelines. Maxwell is used for the transient electromagnetic simulation to calculate the forces which are directly mapped to ANSYS Mechanical through ANSYS Workbench for harmonic analysis. Optionally, an acoustic analysis can be performed to study noise. The forces from Maxwell are mapped as force vectors within the volume of the individual mesh elements, allowing a detailed and accurate form of mapping. This is because element-based mapping allows forces to be calculated for individual mesh elements, increasing the accuracy.

Noise, vibration and harshness

ANSYS Maxwell has a significant new capability for noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) analysis of electrical machines and transformers. NVH is an important analysis required by manufacturers of motors used in hybrid/electric vehicles, appliances, commercial transformers and other applications where quiet operation is an essential design parameter. Two-way transient magnetostriction coupling enables the magnetostrictive forces to be added to the magnetic forces and coupled to a mechanical design to predict acoustic noise.

Read the Application Brief - Electric Machine Noise and Vibration

Electric motor cooling system design: Path Lines, static pressure and temperature distributions
Electric motor cooling system design: Path Lines, static pressure and temperature distributions (based on CFD solution) with power loss input (based on Maxwell solution)

Expert Design Interfaces

Maxwell includes two specialized design interfaces for electric machines and power converters.

RMxprt – Rotating Electric Machines
RMxprt calculates machine performance, makes initial sizing decisions and performs hundreds of "what if" analyses in a matter of seconds. In addition to providing classical motor performance calculations, RMxprt automatically generates geometry, motion and mechanical setup, material properties, core loss, winding and source setup for detailed finite element analysis in Maxwell. In addition, RMxprt automatically generates geometry, corresponding material properties assignment, boundaries and excitation conditions for detailed electronics cooling simulation using CFD in ANSYS Icepak.

PExprt – Electronic Transformers and Inductors
PExprt's template-based interface for transformers and inductors can automatically create a design from voltage waveform or converter inputs. The autodesign process considers all combinations of core shapes, sizes, materials, gaps, wire types and gauges, and winding strategies to optimize the magnetic design. PExprt creates Maxwell models to evaluate the magnetic properties based on finite element analysis. This enables you to assess quantities such as flux density in the core and current density distribution in the windings.

Template-based solution with automatic Maxwell model generation for electric machines design analysis
Template-based solution with automatic Maxwell model generation for electric machines design analysis
Template-based solution with Maxwell model creation for electronic transformers and planar magnetic configurations
Template-based solution with Maxwell model creation for electronic transformers and planar magnetic configurations


Parameterization and optimization are key enablers for Simulation-Driven Product Development. Parametric analysis provides a thorough understanding of the design space based on your design variables, so that you can make better engineering decisions. Optimization algorithms enable the software to automatically find better designs. Parameterization and optimization capabilities available with Maxwell include:

Parametric analysis

  • User-specified range and number of steps for parameters
  • Automatic analysis of parameter permutations
  • Automated job management across multiple hardware platforms and reassembly of data for parametric tables and studies


  • User-selectable cost functions and goal objectives, including:
    • Quasi-Newton method
    • Sequential nonlinear programming (SNLP)
    • Integer-only sequential nonlinear programming

Sensitivity Analysis

  • Design variation studies to determine sensitivities to:
    • Manufacturing tolerances
    • Material properties


  • User-controllable slide-bar for real-time tuning display and result

Statistical Analysis

  • Design performance distribution versus parameter values
Pareto-front analysis of electric machine
Pareto-front analysis of electric machine

Advanced Electromagnetic Material Modeling

Accurately predicting performance of electric machines often depends on the operating temperature and loading history of its components. These effects can be accurately accounted for with Maxwell's advanced material modeling capabilities.

Vector Hysteresis
ANSYS Maxwell employs a vector hysteresis model to accurately predict the minor loops and losses for soft and hard magnetic materials and permanent magnets. The model accounts for both isotropic and anisotropic materials, laminated and non-laminated structures, and the magnetic behavior of ferromagnetic materials when the magnetic operating point history has significant impact on the performance of such devices.

Temperature-Dependent Permanent Magnets
ANSYS Maxwell's demagnetization analysis features enable you to study permanent magnet demagnetization characteristics extended into the third quadrant. External magnetic fields and heating can alter the magnetic properties of permanent magnets, leading to local demagnetization. You can combine these effects to accurately determine the performance of a machine.

Core Loss
Maxwell accurately computes core loss in magnetic materials. Electromagnetic degradation in laminate components and motor assemblies is difficult to predict because of the gap between virgin material data provided by the material supplier and the actual material performance when subjected to real operating conditions. Maxwell takes into account the feedback of the core-loss effect based on a unique algorithm that is predictable, reliable and easy to use.

Based on sequential load transfer couplings between ANSYS Maxwell and ANSYS Mechanical solvers, designers can model materials whose magnetic characteristics are strongly dependent on mechanical stress and strain. These effects cause energy loss due to frictional heating in ferromagnetic cores. The effect is also responsible for the low-pitched humming sound that can be heard coming from transformers, caused by oscillating AC currents, which produce a changing magnetic field. Similarly, for rotating electric machines, the reluctance forces and forces due to magnetostriction acting on the stator teeth are major causes of noise emission.

Magnetic field distribution on hysteresis motor employing magnetic vector hysteresis modeling
Magnetic field distribution on hysteresis motor employing magnetic vector hysteresis modeling
Contours of loss density distribution and static temperature distribution PM demagnetization study on IPM motor design
PM demagnetization study on IPM motor design illustrating different levels of performance (torque profile) prediction considering local demagnetization due to magnetic field and thermal load effects
Core-loss distribution on power transformer laminated core
Core-loss distribution on power transformer laminated core and stator frame deformation due to electromagnetic conditions with corresponding frequency response for acoustic analyses
Stator frame deformation due to electromagnetic conditions with corresponding frequency response for acoustic analyses