From 2012 Automotive Simulation World Congress:
Limiting the amount of contaminated water in a car’s engine bay can reduce maintenance costs. R&D teams must accurately predict the direction and amount of water splashed by a tire
in a wheel house. Volvo analyzed an isolated tire with water splash, identifying the splashing mechanism and its effects. The study incorporated multiphase flows through a volume of
fluid model, and for turbulence through different Reynolds averaged Navier−Stokes models and a large-eddy simulation approach.