Roughness Effect on Next-Gen Cu Interconnects

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In the past, for computation of electrical parameters of on-chip and chip-to-chip interconnects, it has been usually assumed that the conductor surface is homogeneous with smooth outer surfaces. However, copper (Cu) suffers from surface roughness that aggravates conductor losses in high speed interconnects. The delay in interconnects depends mainly on the interconnect parasitics, which would therefore be aggravated due to surface roughness. This leads to reduced bandwidth and higher latency.

The goal of this webinar is to address the roughness-related effects on performance of on-chip and chip-to-chip Cu interconnects. Topics include:

  • Analytical models for extracting line parasitics (RLC p.u.l.) for deeply scaled on-chip interconnects and chip-to-chip interconnects with rough surfaces
  • Analytical models for the computation of resistivity and mean free path of on-chip interconnects at current and advanced technology nodes (i.e., 45nm, 22nm, 13nm, 7nm)
  • Signal integrity analysis using eye diagrams at different bit rates to find the increase in frequency dependent losses due to surface roughness
  • Computational overhead (simulation time, physical memory, matrix size, number of tetrahedrons) incurred for simulating on-chip and chip-to-chip Cu interconnects at different values of roughness and technology nodes.
  • The relationship between surface roughness and various performance metrics such as delay, EDP, BWD, and insertion loss.
  • A comprehensive analysis of the impact of interconnect surface roughness on the energy-budget in networks on chips (NoCs)

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