Simulating the Adaptive Remodeling of Bone in Response to Mechanical Influences using ANSYS

Bone remodeling refers to the self-optimizing behavior of bone tissue in response to a mechanical stimulus, a natural phenomenon producing strong structures with minimal weight. This paper describes BORA, an iterative finite element method incorporated into ANSYS which simulates the biological mechanism of bone remodeling. The equations relating adaptive changes in bone density to the internal stresses and strains are presented together with the methods used for implementing the density evolution equations into ANSYS. Advanced features such as an adaptive time stepping scheme, solution tracking, and results visualization utilities were developed with the goal of making BORA an efficient engineering tool that is convenient to use.