Electric Motors

Engineers who design electric machines need simulation tools that can be employed for quick, accurate product development. By employing finite element methods early in the design process, they can accelerate development and achieve higher machine efficiencies using less material, which reduces costs. Furthermore, to achieve an optimal motor design demands a full multiphysics analysis workflow. Assuming that the machine will remain in the intended operating range can lead to poor design choices, redesign late in the development cycle or product failure. ANSYS’ electric machine design flow provides a complete virtual prototyping laboratory for machine design and development.

Electric Motors

IPM motor: Efficiency map analysis

Interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPM motor) is a motor that is highly efficient and has a wide operation range, wherein this motor uses a rare earth-sintered permanent magnet having a strong magnetic force and uses a reluctance torque that is caused by the inductance difference of d- and q-axes, in addition to a magnet torque due to the magnetic field and the rotating magnetic field of a magnet. Efficiency changes depending on the number of rotations and load; therefore, in the motor design and the control design, an efficiency map prepared so that efficiency performances can be easily grasped in a glance is often used in a performance index as a catalog. However, IPM motor, in general, needs an extensive calculation to change the control method (id=0 control, maximum torque control, field weakening control, and so on) depending on the number of rotations and load, and to depict an efficiency map, so it also takes time to organize the results.

Motor analysis support tool, Electric Machine Design Toolkit, of ANSYS Maxwell, performs in full automatic an efficiency map computation and speed-torque characteristic of a PM motor and realizes significant efficiency in development time by the function of displaying an efficiency map graph. Furthermore, this tool is also compatible with a cluster-type distributed computer processing (*optional) and can perform a high-speed calculation of hundreds of thousands of case studies with high scalability from efficiency map computation until graph output.

IPM motor

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell >Optimetrics

IPM motor

IPM motor

IPM motor

IPM motor

Efficiency map of IPM motor 

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell >Optimetrics

Compatible to both, the motor and the generator characteristics 

Efficiency map of IPM motor (corresponding to both motor / generator characteristics)

Efficiency map of IPM motor (corresponding to both motor / generator characteristics)

Capable of displaying the map of various characteristics and losses

IPM motor efficiency map (Loss and map of various characteristics can also be displayed)

IPM motor efficiency map (Loss and map of various characteristics can also be displayed)

Efficiency map display function

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell >Optimetrics

Efficiency Map Displayer

  • Various display functions
  • Scale change
  • Color tone and gradation change
  • Grid display
  • Label function
  • Copy to a clip board
  • Image file save

Efficiency map display function

Efficiency map display function

Efficiency map display function (speed torque characteristic display)
High-speed torque characteristic display

Efficiency map display function (change color tone / number of gradations)
Change in color tone and the number of gradations

Efficiency Map Display Function (Grid Display)
Grid display

IPM motor: System level simulation

Interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPM motor) is a motor that is highly efficient and has a wide operation range, wherein this motor uses a rare earth-sintered permanent magnet having a strong magnetic force and uses a reluctance torque that is caused by the inductance difference of d- and q-axes, in addition to a magnet torque due to the magnetic field and the rotating magnetic field of the magnet.

Conventionally, most of the control design and the equipment design of a motor adopt a process of independently designing the components, and one of the technical challenges adopting such process is that it is difficult to coordinate the design aiming for optimization of the entire system.

However, this challenge can be solved by a coupled analysis of an electromagnetic field analysis tool ANSYS Maxwell and a control circuit system simulator ANSYS Simplorer, product of ANSYS. There are two major types of techniques that connects an electromagnetic field analysis and a circuit analysis, that is, a cosimulation that transiently carries out a direct coupling and a model-based simulation that handles an equivalent model (behavioral model) generated by an electromagnetic field analysis as one unit within the circuit analysis; however, with ANSYS Maxwell and ANSYS Simplorer, it is possible to perform a simulation at a system level with either technique in response to the user’s need.

With either technique, it is possible to perform a coupled simulation of control that takes into account the space harmonic and the magnetic saturation characteristics that the motor has. The cosimulation can take into consideration the loss phenomena such as core loss phenomena, and so on, with high precision, while the model-based simulation has a feature capable of a very high-speed control simulation.

Maxwell and Simplorer are both products developed by ANSYS, and the products have strengths including a support system and compatibility of tool coordination for a coupled analysis compared to the solution combining tools created by other companies.

Axial gap motor

Relevant product: >ANSYS Maxwell >ANSYS Simplorer

ANSYS Maxwell + ANSYS Simplorer

Simple drive model of IPM motor (ANSYS Maxwell + ANSYS Simplorer)

Current waveform
Current waveform

Torque waveform
Torque waveform

ANSYS Simplorer (ideal motor model) 

Simple drive model of IPM motor (ANSYS Simplorer (ideal motor model))

Current waveform
Current waveform

Torque Waveform
Torque waveform

Current tracking-type PWM drive of IPM motor 

Relevant product: >ANSYS Maxwell >ANSYS Simplorer

Transient direct coupled analysis (co-simulation)
Direct-coupling transient analysis (cosimulation)

Current vector control drive of IPM motor 

Relevant product: >ANSYS Maxwell >ANSYS Simplorer

Transient direct coupled analysis (co-simulation)
Direct-coupling transient analysis (cosimulation)

Motor rotation speed
Motor rotational speed

Current waveform
Current waveform

Torque waveform
Torque waveform

IPM motor: Inductance analysis

Interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPM motor) is a motor that is highly efficient and has a wide operation range, wherein this motor uses a rare earth-sintered permanent magnet having a strong magnetic force and uses a reluctance torque that is caused by the inductance difference of d- and q-axes, in addition to a magnet torque due to the magnetic field and the rotating magnetic field of the magnet.

IPM motor has an advantage in that a generated torque can be improved by using a reluctance torque by the saliency the rotor has, at the same time as a magnet torque, and in order to evaluate this saliency, it is important to grasp the inductance characteristics in the d- and q-axes at the design stage.

ANSYS Maxwell motor analysis can also calculate the inductance value of the transient response that is difficult by the inductance measurement from an induced electromotive force generally performed. The calculations of the three-phase inductance and the d- and q-axis inductance can be performed only by a simple operation using a standard function. 

IPM motor

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

IPM motor

IPM motor

 

Transient response of IPM motor / three-phase inductance

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

Transient response of IPM motor / three-phase inductance

Transient response of IPM motor / d- and q-axis inductance

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

Transient response of IPM motor / dq axis inductance

Current characteristics of IPM motor / inductance

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell >Optimetrics

Current characteristic of IPM motor / inductance

IPM motor / Ld, Lq map

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell >Optimetrics

IPM motor / Ld map
IPM motor / Ld map

IPM motor / Lq map
IPM motor / Lq map

IPM motor: Basic characteristic evaluation 

Interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPM motor) is a motor that is highly efficient and has a wide operation range, wherein this motor uses a rare earth-sintered permanent magnet having a strong magnetic force and uses a reluctance torque that is caused by the inductance difference of d- and q-axes, in addition to a magnet torque due to the magnetic field and the rotating magnetic field of the magnet.

IPM motor adopts a model in which a magnet is embedded inside a rotor and has been devised to be compatible with various rotor shapes. The shape needs to be selected to match with the target specification. An efficient motor design is possible by preparing a rough design using ANSYS RMxprt, specifying the shape, and then finalizing a detailed design using ANSYS Maxwell.

IPM motor model

Related product: >ANSYS RMxprt >ANSYS Maxwell

Example of motor model 

Model example with ANSYS RM xprt
Model example using ANSYS RMxprt

Model example with ANSYS RM xprt
Model example using ANSYS RMxprt

Model example with ANSYS RM xprt
Model example using ANSYS RMxprt

2D model example using ANSYS Maxwell 
2D model example using ANSYS Maxwell 

3D Model example using ANSYS Maxwell
3D Model example using ANSYS Maxwell

Magnetic field display

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

Mag_B (magnetic flux density distribution)
Mag_B (Magnetic flux density distribution)

B_Vector (magnetic flux density vector distribution)
B_Vector (Magnetic flux density vector distribution) 

Flux Line (magnetic flux diagram)
Flux Line (Magnetic flux diagram)

magnetic field display
Magnetic field display

iron loss distribution
Iron loss distribution

Characteristic data

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

cogging torque
Cogging torque

Torque and current phase angle
Torque and current phase angle

Interlinkage magnetic flux
Interlinkage magnetic flux

Iron loss (time change display)
Iron loss (time change display)

IPM motor: Eddy current of permanent magnet

Interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPM motor) is a motor that is highly efficient and has a wide operation range, wherein this motor uses a rare earth-sintered permanent magnet having a strong magnetic force and uses a reluctance torque that is caused by the inductance difference of d- and q-axes, in addition to a magnet torque due to the magnetic field and the rotating magnetic field of the magnet.

In a vector system that has a wide rotational speed region and uses a reluctance torque, a current including a carrier harmonic is entered into a coil. An eddy current loss is generated inside a magnet by a high long wave component [sic, harmonic component?].

Dividing the magnet is effective in minimizing this loss. The difference in eddy current loss by the division of magnet can be estimated by ANSYS Maxwell. 

IPM motor model

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

IPM motor model

rotor
Rotor 

Eddy current distribution
Eddy current distribution

Analysis results

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

Current vector display of the eddy current distribution

No magnet division
No magnet division

With magnet division
With magnet division

Setting of insulating boundary conditions on the division surface
Setting of insulating boundary conditions on the division surface

Change in the magnet loss and the number of magnet divisions
Change in the magnet loss and the number of magnet divisions

IPM motor: Thermal demagnetization analysis

Interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPM motor) is a motor that is highly efficient and has a wide operation range, wherein this motor uses a rare earth-sintered permanent magnet having a strong magnetic force and uses a reluctance torque that is caused by the inductance difference of d- and q-axes, in addition to a magnet torque due to the magnetic field and the rotating magnetic field of the magnet.

Neodymium iron-type rare earth magnets that are often used in motors using these permanent magnets have, on the one hand, an excellent magnetic property that is called an interlinked magnetic flux density, but on the other hand, are known to be easily demagnetized at high temperatures.

The electromagnetic field design and the heat and structure design of a motor conventionally adopt a process of independently designing the components, and one of the technical challenges adopting such process is that it is difficult to coordinate the design aiming for optimization of the entire system. However, the challenge of this multiphysics simulation can be solved by a coupled analysis of an electromagnetic field analysis tool ANSYS Maxwell and a thermo-fluid analysis software ANSYS Fluent.

A design engineer can perform this analysis with ease by utilizing ANSYS Workbench platform to tackle this analysis challenge that has been a big hurdle in the past.
ANSYS Maxwell and ANSYS Fluent are both developed by ANSYS, so both products have strengths including a support system and compatibility of tool coordination for a coupled analysis compared to the solution combining tools created by other companies. 

Permanent magnet thermal demagnetization analysis of IPM motor (electromagnetic field - thermal fluid analysis) 

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell >ANSYS Fluent

Permanent magnet demagnetization curve
Permanent magnet demagnetization curve

A coupled analysis of Maxwell and Fluent can be performed with ease by ANSYS Workbench
A coupled analysis of Maxwell and Fluent can be performed with ease by ANSYS Workbench

Temperature distribution
Temperature distribution

Decreased torque due to thermal demagnetization
Decreased torque due to thermal demagnetization

Permanent magnet thermal demagnetization analysis of IPM motor (Maxwell - Fluent) 
Permanent magnet thermal demagnetization analysis of IPM motor (Maxwell - Fluent) 

Loss distribution
Loss distribution

Switched reluctance motor

In response to the rising prices of rare earth magnets, a switched reluctance motor (SR motor) has garnered expectations as a motor model that does not use a permanent magnet. An SR motor has a simple structure, is robust, and can be realized inexpensively; however, its usage application has been limited because of very large torque variations due to nonlinear saliency of the rotor and the stator in terms of the principle of the torque generation, and accompanied with vibrations and noise. However, the SR motor has been reviewed as the candidate that may solve such challenges in response to the soaring price of rare earth magnets, enabling an optimum design by a magnetic field analysis and the improvement of the current control technique.

SR motor may be driven by changing the switch timing depending on the rotational speed, so it is beneficial in grasping the characteristics including the torque, current, loss, and efficiency depending on the rotational speed.

Inverter drive analysis and torque ripple of SR motor

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

SR motor

Inverter drive analysis of SR motor · Torque ripple

Inverter drive analysis of SR motor · Torque ripple

Magnetic field distribution of SR motor 

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

magnetic field distribution of SR motor

magnetic field distribution of SR motor

magnetic field distribution of SR motor

magnetic field distribution of SR motor

Magnetization characteristics and static characteristics of SR motor 

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

magnetization characteristics and static characteristics of SR motor

magnetization characteristics and static characteristics of SR motor

magnetization characteristics and static characteristics of SR motor

Vibration and eigenvalue analysis of SR motor 

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

vibration and eigenvalue analysis of SR motor

vibration and eigenvalue analysis of SR motor

SPM (Surface Permanent Magnet) motor

SPM motor is a synchronous motor of rotary field type that has a shape in which magnets are laminated on the surface of a rotating body (rotor). This is a motor optimum for control because it has linearity having a good relation between the torque and the current.

Furthermore, it has the optimal shape for a small motor with a small output; however, a magnetic analysis by a finite element method becomes necessary on variations in rotation including a cogging torque. With the demands of miniaturization and high output in recent years, the distribution of magnetic saturation needs to be precisely analyzed, so a magnetic analysis becomes an important technique

SPM motor model (2D/3D) 

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

Example of SPM motor model (2D model) 
Example of SPM motor model (2D model) 

Example of SPM motor model (3D model) 
Example of SPM motor model (3D model) 

Example of creating a drive circuit by ANSYS Maxwell Circuit Editor (Maxwell standard equipment) 
Example of creating a drive circuit by ANSYS Maxwell Circuit Editor (Maxwell standard equipment) 

Magnetic field display

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

Mag_B (Magnetic flux density distribution
Mag_B (Magnetic flux density distribution

B_Vector (Magnetic flux density vector distribution)
B_Vector (Magnetic flux density vector distribution)

Mag_H (magnetic field intensity distribution
Mag_H (magnetic field intensity distribution)

Mag_B (Magnetic flux density distribution)
Mag_B (Magnetic flux density distribution)

B_Vector (Magnetic flux density vector distribution)
B_Vector (Magnetic flux density vector distribution)

Flux Line (Magnetic flux diagram)
Flux Line (Magnetic flux diagram)

Mag_H (magnetic field intensity distribution)
Mag_H (magnetic field intensity distribution)

Jz (Z-direction current density distribution)
Jz (Z-direction current density distribution)

Characteristic data

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

Cogging torque waveform
Cogging torque waveform

Analysis example by three-phase layer drive inverter of 120º energization method

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

Coil current (three phases)
Coil current (three phases)

Switching pattern
Switching pattern

Torque
Torque 

Loss
Loss

Three-phase induced voltage
Three-phase induced voltage

SPM motor/cogging torque analysis

A motor that uses a permanent magnet that has an iron core can be designed as a high-output motor of a small size; however, there is a demerit of cogging torque, and so on.

A cogging torque is influenced by the torque pulsation, adversely affecting the stability of mechanical vibration, noise, and drive system and the reliability as a product.

However, the cogging torque is a sensitive torque, wherein an actual measurement is difficult, and a nonlinear element is strong, so it is very beneficial in designing the utilization of an electromagnetic field analysis capable of high-precision simulation.

ANSYS electromagnetic field analysis is an optimal analysis tool that can automatically generate an optimal mesh by adaptive auto meshing and be used in a sensitive characteristic analysis of a cogging torque, and so on.

SPM motor 

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

SPM motor

SPM motor

Difference in magnetic flux density waveform due to the differences in the magnetization directions on the rotor surface of the motor

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

Difference in magnetic flux density waveform due to difference in magnetization direction of rotor surface of SPM motor

Polar anisotropic magnet
Polar anisotropic magnet

Radial anisotropic magnet
Radial anisotropic magnet

Cogging torque waveform of SPM motor due to the difference in the magnetization direction

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

Cogging Torque Waveform
Cogging Torque Waveform

Flux line
Flux line

Effect on the torque ripple due to the difference in the magnetization direction

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

Torque waveform of SPM motor 

At sinusoidal drive (current source drive)
At sinusoidal drive (current source drive)

Influence on torque ripple due to difference in magnetization direction

At 120º energized inverter drive (voltage source drive)
At 120º energized inverter drive (voltage source drive) 

Influence on torque ripple due to difference in magnetization direction

Three-phase induction motor

Induction motors have been utilized in the past in wide fields of application from industrial applications to household applications, wherein the motor is driven by flowing an induction current to a secondary conductor by the rotating magnetic field of a stator winding, and the rotor receiving the power in the rotational direction by its current and the rotating magnetic field. The motor has a simple structure and advantages of being small in size, light in weight, inexpensive and maintainable. 

In response to the soaring price of rare earth magnets seen in recent years, research and development have been active again for developing induction motors that are small in size and have high output and high efficiency, targeting the needs similar to those in a permanent magnet synchronous motor as a motor model that does not use a permanent magnet. High-precision characteristic evaluation and comprehension using an electromagnetic field analysis tool are beneficial in the design and development of such high-performance induction motors 

Current and torque ripple waveforms of three-phase induction motor

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

Three-phase induction motor

Three-phase induction motor

Three-phase induction motor

 

Three-phase induction motor

Three-phase induction motor

 

Current waveform of three-phase induction motor
Current waveform of three-phase induction motor

Torque ripple waveform of three-phase induction motor
Torque ripple waveform of three-phase induction motor

Magnetic field distribution of three-phase induction motor

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

Magnetic flux density
Magnetic flux density

Magnetic flux diagram
Magnetic flux diagram

Current density distribution of car conductor part of the secondary side
Current density distribution of car conductor part of the secondary side

Core iron loss distribution (time average)
Core iron loss distribution (time average)

Magnetic flux density vector
Magnetic flux density vector

Speed – torque, output, efficiency, and power factor characteristics of a three-phase induction motor

Related product: >ANSYS RMxprt

Three-phase induction motor speed - torque, output, efficiency, power factor characteristics

Cooling design and thermal fluid analysis of a three-phase induction motor

Related product: >ANSYS Fluent

Cooling design and thermal fluid analysis of three-phase induction motor

Cooling design and thermal fluid analysis of three-phase induction motor

Cooling design and thermal fluid analysis of three-phase induction motor'

DC motor with brush

DC motor with a brush has windings, magnets, and commutators, can be easily driven by connecting a DC power supply, and has a proportional relationship between the torque and the current, thereby having high controllability. Based on such characteristics, the motor is used in various fields, and becomes one of the motors with the most production volume.

DC motor models with brush (2D/3D) 

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

2D model
2D model

3D model
3D model

Example of creating a drive circuit by ANSYS Maxwell Circuit Editor (Maxwell standard equipment)
Example of creating a drive circuit by ANSYS Maxwell Circuit Editor (Maxwell standard equipment) 

Display of various fields

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

Display of magnetic flux density
Display of magnetic flux density

Display of magnetic field
Display of magnetic field

Display of current density vector
Display of current density vector

Characteristic data

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

Interlinkage magnetic flux
Interlinkage magnetic flux

Induced voltage
Induced voltage

Output and efficiency characteristic graph
Output and efficiency characteristic graph

T-I and T-N characteristic graph 
T-I and T-N characteristic graph 

Linear synchronous motor

A linear motor is an electric device that provides an electromagnetic force by causing a direct and linear movement to a subject, and a structure in which a cylindrical rotary motor is developed linearly can be considered.

The linear motor has a long history similar to that of a rotating machine. In recent years, a direct drive becomes possible in which a thrust in any direction is given to the driven object without contact; and in addition to the characteristics of high speed, high resolution, high precision, and high reliability, the application of a linear motor to a positioning device is expanding by the improvement of repeating precision of positioning and freedom of movement by an integration with a servo control technology.

An analysis example in a coreless-type linear synchronous motor will be introduced here.

A coreless type refers to a type of motor that does not use iron including an electromagnetic steel sheet at the portion at which a coil is wound. This type of linear motor, in principle, does not have a cogging torque, so it is used in devices for performing positioning at higher precision. 

Analysis model

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

Analysis model
Analysis model

Mover (three-phase coreless coil)
Mover (three-phase coreless coil)

Display of various fields

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

Magnetic flux density distribution
Magnetic flux density distribution

Magnetic flux density distribution (sectional)
Magnetic flux density distribution (sectional)

Coil current
Coil current

Distribution of force applied to the coil
Distribution of force applied to the coil

Characteristic data - transient response at reciprocating motion

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

Current waveform
Current waveform

Voltage waveform
Voltage waveform

Interlinked magnetic flux waveform
Interlinked magnetic flux waveform

Position 
Position 

Speed 
Speed 

VR-type resolver

A resolver is one of the rotation angle sensors often used in a motor, and the like. Although it is one kind of alternator, it is configured by a two-phase coil in which the winding direction of the output is orthogonal, wherein generated voltages of sinφ and cosφ are detected in proportion to the rotation angle to obtain a rotation angle as a digital value by an A/D converter, or the like. It has a simple configuration as compared with that of a rotary encoder, which makes it suitable to be used in adverse environments; however, it has disadvantages such as complicated signal processing circuit and inferior detection accuracy to the encoder.

By combining the electromagnetic field analysis and the circuit analysis of ANSYS, it is possible to perform a system simulation including not only the electromagnetic design of the resolver body but also the drive encoder and cables, allowing high-precision and optimal cooperative design of the whole system.

VR-type resolver

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

VR resolver

VR resolver

VR resolver

VR resolver

Electromagnetic field analysis model of cable

Related product: >ANSYS Q3D Extractor

Electromagnetic field analysis model of cable'

System simulation of a rotor position detection using an electromagnetic field analysis model of cable and resolver

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell >ANSYS Simplorer >ANSYS Q3D Extractor

System simulation of rotor position detection using electromagnetic analysis model of resolver and cable

Doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) 

This is an essential technical element to optimize power generation efficiency with respect to the wind speed that fluctuates from time to time during a variable speed operation in wind power generation using large wind turbines. A doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) is generally adopted in a wind turbine generator using a large windmill.

By combining the electromagnetic field analysis and the circuit analysis of ANSYS, system simulation including an inverter not only for the electromagnetic design of a generator is possible, allowing high-precision and optimal cooperative design of the whole system.

DFIG

Related product: >ANSYS RMxprt >ANSYS Maxwell

DFIG

DFIG

DFIG

DFIG

Control system simulation for a system operation of a wind-power 
generation using an electromagnetic field analysis of DFIG 

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell >ANSYS RMxprt >ANSYS Simplorer

Control system simulation of system operation of wind power generation using electromagnetic analysis model of DFIG

Synchronous reluctance motor (SynRM) 

In response to the soaring price of rare earth magnets, a synchronous reluctance motor (SynRM) has attracted attention as a type of motor that does not use a permanent magnet. SynRM is robust and has a simple structure and can be realized inexpensively. However, because the principle of torque generation is due to only a reluctance torque by the magnetizing force of the coil and the saliency of the rotor, in order to increase the torque density, it largely depends on the nonlinear magnetization characteristics and the shape structure of the core, and it is not the type of motor typically used up to date. However, SynRM has been reviewed as the candidate that can possibly reduce such problems in response to the soaring price of rare earth magnets, enabling an optimal design by magnetic field analysis and the improvement of the current control technique.

SynRM operates using a nonlinear region of an electromagnetic steel sheet, therefore showing a nonlinear behavior due to magnetic saturation not only with respect to the rotor position but also to the inductance. This also causes the current waveform to become easily distorted. However, it is impossible to obtain a precise prediction with high accuracy using a calculation method along a linear theory formula. An electromagnetic field analysis by a finite element method is beneficial because it can handle a transient current, detailed motor shapes, and nonlinear magnetization characteristics of materials.

Synchronous reluctance motor

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

synchronous reluctance motor

synchronous reluctance motor

synchronous reluctance motor

Transient response output waveform

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

transient response output waveform

transient response output waveform

transient response output waveform

transient response output waveform

Current phase angle - torque characteristics of SynRM

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

current phase angle of SynRM - torque characteristic

Changes in torque and saliency ratio from the improvement in the rotor shape of SynRM 

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

Before Improvement Before Improvement Before Improvement

Before Improvement

After Improvement After Improvement After Improvement

After Improvement

Beta 45 deg

Toruqe

Ld/ Lq ratio

Before Improvement

1.38 Nm

1.92

After Improvement

1.66 Nm

2.34

Improvement Effect

+ 20.2 %

+ 21.8 %

Single phase induction motor

Induction motors have been utilized in the past in wide fields of application from industrial applications to household applications, wherein the motor is driven by flowing an induction current to a secondary conductor by the rotating magnetic field of a stator winding, and the rotor receiving the power in the rotational direction by its current and the rotating magnetic field. It has advantages such as a simple structure, small in size, light in weight, inexpensive, and maintainable. 

A single phase induction motor is widely used in fans with small output, ceiling fans, and so on, because it can be easily driven by a single-phase AC power source for ordinary households.

Single phase induction motor

Related product: >ANSYS RMxprt >ANSYS Maxwell

Single phase induction motor

Single phase induction motor

Single phase induction motor

Single phase induction motor

Single phase induction motor

Single phase induction motor

Magnetic field distribution of a single-phase induction motor

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

Magnetic flux density
Magnetic flux density

Magnetic flux diagram
Magnetic flux diagram

Current density distribution of car conductor part of the secondary side
Current density distribution of car conductor part of the secondary side

Magnetic flux density vector
Magnetic flux density vector

Speed – torque, output, efficiency, and power factor characteristics of a single-phase induction motor

Related product: >ANSYS RMxprt

Speed of single phase induction motor - torque, output, efficiency, power factor characteristics

Universal motor

A universal motor is a motor that can be operated irrespective of whether the power supply is a DC or AC, has a simple structure and robustness that enables a high-speed rotation. It is used in home appliances and industrial tools up to date.

Universal motor

Related product: >ANSYS RMxprt >ANSYS Maxwell

Universal motor

Universal motor

Universal motor

Magnetic field distribution of a universal motor

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

magnetic flux density
Magnetic flux density and magnetic flux diagram

T-N and T-I of a universal motor

Related product: >ANSYS RMxprt

TN, TI of universal motor

Speed – torque, output, efficiency, and power factor characteristics of a universal motor

Related product: >ANSYS RMxprt

Speed of Universal Motor - Torque, Output, Efficiency, Power Factor Characteristics

Salient-pole synchronous generator

Salient pole synchronous generator is often used in large generators in power plants. The power is generated by the electromagnetic induction of a stator coil by providing a field current to the coil of a rotor and rotating the rotor.

Because in a salient pole synchronous generator, any power factor can be obtained by adjusting the field current depending on the load and the power factor of the load connected, V-curve characteristics showing a relationship between the armature current and the field current are investigated.

Salient-pole synchronous generator

Related product: >ANSYS RMxprt >ANSYS Maxwell

salient pole synchronous generator

salient pole synchronous generator

salient pole synchronous generator

Magnetic field analysis of a salient pole synchronous generator

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

Magnetic flux density distribution (at load)
Magnetic flux density distribution (at load)

Induced voltage waveform (at no load)
Induced voltage waveform (at no load)

V- curve characteristics of a synchronous generator

Related product: >ANSYS RMxprt

V curve characteristic of synchronous generator

Claw-pole generator

A claw pole generator is used as an alternator in vehicles. Each rotor pole has a structure of overlapping claws, so it is called a claw pole. Generators of this claw pole type
 are increasingly utilized as motors for stators in recent years, and a magnetic analysis is used to analyze the shape for fulfilling the characteristics of both the generator and the motor.

 
Claw-pole generator

Related product: >ANSYS RMxprt >ANSYS Maxwell

Example of model preparation by ANSYS Maxwell 3D

Cross section
Cross section

Overall picture
Overall picture

Example of model preparation by ANSYS RMxprt

Model creation screen with ANSYS RMxprt

Model creation screen with ANSYS RMxprt

Model creation screen with ANSYS RMxprt

Magnetic field analysis of a salient pole synchronous generator

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

Magnetic flux density distribution (at no load)
Magnetic flux density distribution (at no load)

Characteristic waveform

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

Induced voltage waveform (no load)
Induced voltage waveform (no load)

Axial gap motor

An axial gap motor is a motor that has a configuration in which the stator is located opposite to the rotor arranged in a disc shape. Therefore, this motor is suitable in small and thin size and at high torque. However, the magnetic flux is flowing in the axial direction, so a magnetic analysis by a 3D model is required for a precise design. 

Axial gap motor

Related product: >ANSYS RMxprt >ANSYS Maxwell

Example of model preparation by ANSYS Maxwell 3D

Overall picture
Overall picture

Example of model preparation by ANSYS RMxprt

Axial gap motor

Axial gap motor

Axial gap motor

Axial gap motor

Model creation screen with ANSYS RMxprt

Model creation screen with ANSYS RMxprt

Model creation screen with ANSYS RMxprt

Magnetic field analysis of a salient pole synchronous generator

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell

Magnetic flux density distribution (at no load)
Magnetic flux density distribution (at no load)

Characteristic waveform

Related product: >ANSYS RMxprt

Torque
Torque 

Interlinkage magnetic flux density
Interlinkage magnetic flux density

Phase current
Phase current

Electromagnetic field - vibration and noise analysis

In many electric devices, in addition to motors, the problems of vibration and noise caused by an electromagnetic force have challenged design engineers for a long time.

Conventionally, most of the electromagnetic field design and the structure design adopt a process of independently designing the components, and one of the technical challenges adopting such process is that it is difficult to coordinate the design aiming for optimization of the entire system. However, the challenge of this multiphysics simulation can be solved by a coupled analysis using an electromagnetic field analysis tool ANSYS Maxwell and a structural analysis software ANSYS Mechanical, product of ANSYS.

With the new function installed in the new version ANSYS R15.0, the electromagnetic force data of time response obtained from a transient response analysis (time response analysis) using the electromagnetic field analysis tool ANSYS Maxwell are subjected to FFT conversion and [the analysis] is continued to be performed until mapping to the frequency response analysis of the structural analysis. By utilizing a platform called ANSYS Workbench, a design engineer can perform this analysis with ease, even with respect to these analysis challenges that have become a hurdle in the past such as time response in the electromagnetic field and frequency response in the structure analysis.

Furthermore, by utilizing the ANSYS ACT Extension function, it is possible to analyze noises and the sound pressure field to the surroundings in the structure analysis.

ANSYS Maxwell and ANSYS Mechanical are both products developed by ANSYS, and the products have strengths including a support system and compatibility of tool coordination for a coupled analysis compared to the solution combining tools created by other companies.

 

ANSYS Workbench makes it possible for a coupled analysis using Maxwell and Mechanical with ease. 

ANSYS Workbench makes it possible for a coupled analysis using Maxwell and Mechanical with ease. 

Coupled analysis of Maxwell and Mechanical can be easily realized with ANSYS Workbench

Vibration and noise analysis of permanent magnet synchronous motor (electromagnetic field - structure analysis)

Related product: >ANSYS Maxwell >ANSYS Mechanical

motor

Vibration and Noise Analysis of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (Electromagnetic Field - Structure Analysis)
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Magnetic field analysis Vibration analysis Acoustic analysis
magnetic field analysis Vibration analysis	Acoustic analysis
magnetic field analysis Vibration analysis	Acoustic analysis

electromagnetic field - vibration / noise analysis electromagnetic field - vibration / noise analysis
electromagnetic field - vibration / noise analysis electromagnetic field - vibration / noise analysis