Energy efficiency is a fundamental requirement for modern industrial equipment and turbomachinery, due to high/fluctuating energy costs and availability. The focus is on reducing fuel burn or increasing machine efficiency, depending on the application. To achieve targets, developers look at improving all aspects of machine performance.
Improving machine efficiency generally results in reduced carbon emissions, but engineers also must address emissions of NOx, SOx, unburned hydrocarbons and soot. As machines cycle more frequently, operate off-design, and burn multiple fuels, it becomes more difficult to meet emissions targets.
Reducing power consumption is a pressing issue for providers of turbomachinery in automotive, chemical process, oil and gas, and HVAC applications. Efficient compressors, turbines, pumps and fans reduce power consumption and, hence, plant and building operating costs. Low maintenance translates to low operating costs consequently a focus on reliability.
Efficiency, operational flexibility and reliability are critical parameters for hydraulic machinery of all types. Hydraulic turbines must offer very high efficiency, and the equipment is now expected to operate over an increased operating range and to cycle more frequently. Requirements are similar for pumps, vehicle torque converters and marine liquid propulsion systems, including propellers.
Reducing fuel burn, for economic and operational reasons, is a key requirement for most aircraft engines, auxiliary power units, and gas and steam turbines. Low emissions, both carbon and non-carbon, satisfy growing public environmental concerns and increased government legislation.
A key aerodynamic feature of wind turbines, aircraft propellers and rotors is the lack of flow guidance due to low blade solidity. Consequently, requirements include power delivery and aerodynamic efficiency over a broad range of flow incidence. Reliability and safety are also paramount due to inaccessibility and human safety considerations.
To reduce fuel burn or increase industrial equipment efficiency, developers look at all components and disciplines that could impact machine performance: turbine, compressor, combustor, inlet and exhaust as well as aero/hydrodynamics, thermal, combustion, mechanical and dynamics effects.